Single-cell organisms living either independently or in close association with other living organisms. Often referred to as microbes or microorganisms because of their microscopic size. Some bacteria are beneficial, but others cause infectious diseases.
A small stony concretion that may form in the stomachs of certain animals, especially ruminants. Bezoars are caused by a buildup of material in the gastrointestinal tract that the stomach can't digest.
A liver secretion that is necessary for proper digestion of fats.
BIOLOGICAL VALUE (of a protein)
A measure of protein quality. The percentage of protein in a feed which is not lost in the urine or the feces of the animal. Biological value is a reflection of the balance of amino acids available to the animal after digestion and absorption.
A swelling of the left side of the cow caused by a frothy material which prevents gases of fermentation from being eructed from the rumen. Occurs primarily when cows are grazing certain species of legumes especially, alfalfa. If not treated immediately, bloat can cause death in a matter of hours. More...
The part of leaf and twig growth of shrubs, woody vines, and trees that is available for animal consumption.
A chemical substances, such as sodium bicarbonate, that can maintain the pH of the rumen content around neutrality (pH = 6 to 7). The pH is maintained by neutralizing the volatile fatty acids and other organic acids produced by ruminal fermentation.
A bull used for natural mating after mutiple artificial insemination attempts have failed to establish pregnancy.