Glossary search results: 22

SCOUR

see diarrhea.


SECRETION

The movement of a material from one place to another. Secretion is often required to move a material to the place where it can be excreted. Examples of materials secreted include all materials excreted (see Excretion above), plus enzymes, hormones and saliva. The organs that play a role in secretion include all those involved in excretion, plus the digestive glands like salivary glands, pancreas, liver and gallbladder and endocrine glands like the thyroid gland, pituitary gland, and ovaries and testes.


SEED

A fertilized and ripened plant ovule containing an embryo capable of germinating to produce a new plant.


SENSITIVITY

The probability that a test is positive, given that the animal has the disease (See also specificity).


SERUM

The clear yellowish fluid obtained upon separating the clotted whole blood into its liquid and solid (red and white blood cells) components.


SILAGE

Method of preservation of fresh forages based on the partial fermentation of the sugars in absence of oxygen. Silage can be made in various silos.


SILO

Structure constructed to help preserving forages as silage. Different types of silos includes: Tower silo, oxygen limiting silo, trench silo, etc.


SINUS

A cavity formed by a bending or curving; a dilated passage.


SOMATIC CELLS

(a) Any of the cells of a plant or animal except the reproductive cells. (b) Milk somatic cells are primarily leukocytes (white blood cells) and some epithelial cells shed from the lining of the mammary gland. The leukocytes are derived from blood and consist of macrophages, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear cells, primarily neutrophils (PMN). Normal milk does contain somatic cells, and the concentration of these cells is almost always less than 100,000 cells/ml in milk from uninfected/uninflamed mammary quarters.


SPECIFICITY

The probability that a test is negative, given that the animal does not have the disease (see also sensitivity).


SPHINCTER

A ring-like muscle that maintains constriction of a bodily passage or orifice and opens upon relaxation.


SPROUT (to)

To grow or to develop quickly (syn to germinate).


STALK

The main stem of an herbaceous plant.


STANDARD DEVIATION (statistics)

Standard deviation (SD) is a measure of the dispersion of a set of data from its mean. If the data points are further from the mean, there is higher deviation within the data set. The SD shares the same unit as the mean. The SD is calculated as the square root of variance by determining the variation between each data point relative to the mean. The symbol for standard deviation is σ (the Greek letter sigma). Approximately, in a normal distribution,
38% of all observations are within ± 0.5 SD units of the mean;
68% of all observations are within ± 1 SD units of the mean;
95% of all observations are within ± 2 SD units of the mean;
99% of all observations are within ± 3 SDunits of the mean.


STARCH

Carbohydrate found chiefly in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots, an stem pith of plants notably in corn, potatoes, wheat and rice. Warm season grasses (C4 plants) store starch in chloroplasts in leaf tissue. C4 grasses such as Bermuda Paspalum or Rhodes grasses grown under heat stress may contain considerable starch in leafy tissue. Nutritionally, it is referred to as non-structural carbohydrate as opposed to the carbohydrate found in the neutral detergent fiber of the plant.


STEM

The main upward growing axis of a plant, usually above the ground and in direction opposite of the roots.


STILLBORN CALF

A calf born dead or that dies within 48 hours of birth.


STOVER

Fodder; mature-cured stalks from which seeds have been removed, such as stalks of corn or stalk of sorghum without heads.


STRAW
STRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATE
SUBCLINICAL
SYMBIOSIS