2017 Schedule and Materials

Animal Agriculture and Sustainable Development

Week Date Topics Pre-class
blog (ID req.)
Quiz (ID req.)
Prstn (ID req.)
Module I: Feeding the World in the 21st Century: A Tale of Two Cities?
1 01/18 Class Overview | Survey | Agriculture and World Population Intro blg | Pre-blg 01-Quiz --
2 01/25 Feeding 9 Billion People in 2050: How Will That Happen? Pre-blog 02-Quiz --
3 02/02 Malnutrition in the World: What is the Current Status? Pre-blog 03-Quiz --
4 02/08 Food Security and Nutrition: Who Feeds Whom? Pre-blog 04-Quiz --
5 02/15 Food, Environment & Health: Association or Causation?  Pre-blog 05-Quiz Prst-1
6 02/22 Meat, Eggs & Dairy: Is Too Much of a Good Thing a Bad Thing? Pre-blog 06-Quiz Prst-2
Module II: Sustainability: What a "Wicked" Problem!
7 03/01 What is Sustainable Development? What is Sustainable Agriculture? Pre-blog 07-Quiz Prst-3
8 03/08 What are the Roles of Livestock in Developing Countries? Pre-blog 08-Quiz Prst-4
9 03/15 What is the Livestock Revolution? Can There be Only Winners? Pre-blog 09-Quiz Prst-5
-- 03/22 Spring Break -- No Class -- -- --
10 03/29 How is Sustainability Measured in Small-Scale Dairy Farms in Mexico? Pre-blog 10-Quiz Prst-6
Module III: Think Globally, Act Locally: Where is the Market?
11 04/05 From Subsistence to Market-oriented Farming: What type of Technology? Pre-blog 11-Quiz Prst-7
12 04/12 Linking Agriculture to Nutrition: Multi-Level Strategies for Integrated Livestock Development in Ethiopia P-blg 1 | P-blg 2 -- --
13 04/19 Is Global Trade a Friend or a Foe of Sustainable Development? P-blg 1 | P-blg 2 13a | 13b Prst-8
Module IV: Breaking the Chains of Hunger and Poverty: Can it be done?
14 04/26 Can Peasant Life in Brazil Provide for an Adequate Livelihood? Pre-blog 14-Quiz Prst-9
15 05/03 Can we "Really" Help the Peasants of the World or Is it a Lost Cause? Pre-blog 15-Quiz --
-- 05/10 Download the Final-Take-Home here (Deadline: Wednesday May 10, 4:30 pm). - - -- --
=======>>>>>>>> Download
Pre Class Blogs

  • 01: W 01/18
    • Synopsis: For the first day of class, our objectives are: (a) to get to know each other, (b) to discuss the syllabus and the 473 Follow-up field program in Mexico, (c) to take a survey, (d) discuss the article of Erisman et al. (2004) and (e) to watch an "Amazing Video".
    • Pre-class assignment:  Intro Blog | How a Century of Ammonia Synthesis Changed the World (Erisman et al., 2004). 
    • In-class activity: Survey of your level of agreement with statements on topics that will be discussed during the semester | From "Poor & Sick" to "Rich & Healthy" Nations: An Amazing Video!.
  • 02: W 01/25
    • Synopsis: With the addition of 2 billion people to world population between 2010 and 2050, the demand for food will continue to increase for the foreseeable future. Producing food requires natural resources (land, water, energy, etc) and may have negative impacts on air quality and water quality. Agriculture has an impact of climate because of the substantial release of greenhouse gases. In turn climate has an impact on agriculture because crops and animal productions depend in parts on weather conditions. In their articles, Godfray et al. (2010) suggested that the world can produce more food but attention should be paid to issues of efficiency and equitability. 
    • Pre-class assignment: Food Security: The Challenge of Feeding 9 Billion People (Godfray et al., 2010).
    • In-class activity: Presentation of Field Study Program in Mexico | Discussion of pre-class blogs centered on food waste and yield gaps in developed and developing countries.
  • 03: W 02/01
    • Synopsis: The Global Nutrition Report was written by an "independent Expert Group" and was published by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Eradication malnutrition is a necessary step to achieve other sustainable development goals (SDG). Although the world is making progress in reducing malnutrition, progress are too slow and too uneven. The hope is fund actions embedded within key development sectors that will lead to a virtuous cycle of improved nutrition. Government must be held accountable. Malnutrition in all its forms could be reduced substantially by 2030
    • Pre-class assignment: Please read the Executive Summary (pages xxi to xxviii) and Chapter 1 of the 2015 Global Nutrition Report (IFPRI, 2015).
    • In-class activity: Team formation for class presentation project | Discussion of reading: types of malnutrition, causes solutions?
  • 04: W 02/08
    • Synopsis: Progress towards food security and nutrition targets requires that food is available, accessible and of sufficient quantity and quality to ensure good nutritional outcomes. This week's reading and discussion focuses on a range of factors that enable progress towards food security and nutrition goals. The list of factors – economic growth, agricultural productivity growth, markets (including international trade) and social protection – is by no means exhaustive.
    • Pre-class assignment: Please read page 26 to 37, Box 5 page 40, and Key Findings page 42 of the State of Food Insecurity in the World (FAO, 2015).
    • In-class activity: Tba.
  • 05: W 02/15
    • Synopsis: The article of Tilman and Clark (Nature, 2014) provides evidence that rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. The data presented is used to suggest that these dietary trends are associated with decreased health outcomes (public health) and have implications for future global agricultural greenhouse gases emissions (environmental sustainability). The authors explore the "tight link" among diet–environment– health trilemma for various types of dietary habits. We'll discuss the evidence presented in the paper and try to decide what "tight link" means (causation or association) and how these implications may change if we discuss them at the level of a (developed vs developing) country, a community, or even at our own individual level rather than at the planetary scale. Looking forward to a great discussion!
    • Pre-class assignment: Please read Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health (Tilman and Clark, 2014). No need to read the Methods section, but please look at the Extended Data Tables. 
    • In-class activity: Putting Emission Data in Perspective | Meat of the Future? Let's listen to an NPR segment (aired Feb 11, 2017): Saving the Planet, One Burger at a Time: This Juicy Patty is Meat-Free.
  • 06: W 02/22
    • Synopsis: Eshel et al. (PNAS, 2014) used national-level (USDA) statistics to study the relative environmental burden of egg, milk, and meat (poultry, pork and beef) produced in the United States. This method is an alternative to Life Cycle Assessment that is typically used to determine the environmental burden of a particular good. Land required, irrigation water used, greenhouse gases emitted, and release of reactive Nitrogen (Nr) were used as the metrics to estimate the environmental burden of these animal products. Beef was found to be by far the most resource intensive and environmentally costly animal product. The authors suggested that policy makers and consumers could use the results of this study for their decision-making.
    • Pre-class assignment: Please read pages 1 to 4 of Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States (Eshel et al., 2014). No need to read the Methods section. If interested, please have a look at the supplementary information.
    • In-class activity: Tba.
  • 07: W 03/01
    • Synopsis: Dave Beede, a dairy scientist from Michigan State University and former president of the American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) wrote this book chapter as a way to integrate the current knowledge on issues related to sustainability of (animal) agriculture. This is our first reading from an animal (dairy) scientist. So for the first time we have the perspective of an animal scientist on the sustainability of animal agriculture. 
    • Pre-class assignment: The reading is Animal Agriculture: How Can It Be Sustainable in the Future? from Dr. Dave Beede. Please read pages 284 to 290 (skip the section titled trends in animal production and society), and read pages 292 to 298 (skip the section titled advancements in animal science and technology and the rest of the paper).
    • In-class activity: Sustainability Activity.
  • 08: W 03/08
    • Synopsis: We now focus on the multiple roles of livestock in developing countries. This article summarizes the benefits and risks associated with animal agriculture in developing countries. The article will help us understand the complex socio-economic roles of livestock, the importance of livestock for women, and the role of livestock in enhancing and endangering human health. The linkage between livestock and environment has been discussed earlier and will be revisited briefly here.
    • Pre-class assignment: The reading is The roles of livestock in developing countries (Herrero et al, 2012). Please read pages 1 to 10 (the last three pages will be for next week).
    • Optional reading: Feel free to look at this 2014 World Health Organization report on Neglected Zoonoses in Developing Countries and how they could be controlled. By the way, you may remember from the reading that the authors referred to "1 million lost DALYs (page 7). Here links for you to learn more about Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) and here is where you can visualize the burden of diseases around the world expressed as "DALYs" (Disability-Adjusted Life Year).
    • In-class activity: Concept map of human and livestock interactions.
  • 09: W 03/15
    • Synopsis: The livestock revolution refers to the on-going large increase in demand for meat and milk in "emerging" economies (developing nations) as millions of people move from poverty to middle-class status. China, Brazil and India have been the main drivers of the large increase in demand, but the process repeats itself even at a local level: Provide poor people with disposable income and they will use some of it to diversify their staple, plant-based diet with animal products. Before focusing on whether the livestock revolution offers an opportunity for poor farmer, we will discuss briefly the last part of last week's article. The main point of discussion of the main reading for today can be put like this: Will policies be put in place to offer smallholders an opportunity to compete for (serve) the increasing national markets or will policies be slanted toward letting large companies with global interests to increase global market share by marketing their products (or services) to developing countries? 
    • Pre-class assignment: First, please read pages 11 to 13 of last week's reading: The roles of livestock in developing countries (Herrero et al, 2012). Also please read The Livestock Revolution: An opportunity for Poor Farmers? (Inforesource/FocusNo 1/07).
    • In-class activity: Tba.
  • 10: W 03/29
    • Synopsis: Even as Mexico's dairy industry is changing and evolving along a similar path as the U.S., towards larger and more specialized dairy farms with higher production capabilities, Mexico's agriculture industry is still dominated by diversified smallholders. Today we will focus on the "IDEA" method to measure sustainability of smallholder dairy farms and we will discuss how specialization versus diversification intersect with the concept of sustainability.
    • Pre-class assignment: Please read the article Evaluation of Sustainability of Smallholder Dairy Production in the Highlands of Mexico authored by Fadul-Pacheco et al., (2013).
    • In-class activity:
  • 11: W 04/05
    • Synopsis: Last week we looked at how to assess the sustainability of smallholder dairy farmers in the northern part of the state of Mexico (Northwest of Mexico City). Today's class will take a closer look at the factors that may influence the adoption of technology among the same small holder dairy farmers. Characteristics of the farm, of the farmers and of his (all farmers were men in this study) households were important determinants of farmer's ability to "change." The reasons for which some farmers rejected (did not adopt) certain technologies may come to a surprise to some of us!
    • Pre-class assignment 1: Please read the short article Farm, Household, and Farmer Characteristics Associated with Changes in Management and Technology Adoption Among Dairy Smallholders authored by Martinez-García et al., (2015).
    • Pre-class assignment 2(Please complete by 2:30 pm today); A Case Study of technology adoption: Should I buy a Milking Machine? (Note: the web-base case study requires Java Script; please follow instructions carefully as you will be asked at three different points as you move through the case study to vote whether or not you recommend that "José" buy a milking machine. Your vote will be recorded on a google doc and used for class discussion).
    • In-class activity:  Discussion of pre-class blog and results of your votes on the case study.
  • 11: W 04/12
    • Synopsis: This is a very special week for the class as we have two experts who have spent considerable amount of time in Ethiopia to better understand the linkage between human health (nutrition) and agriculture. The lecture title is self-explanatory. Heidi and Sarah will help us think about the complexities associated with linking agriculture (in this case milk production) with better nutrition in rural communities of Ethiopia.
    • Pre-class assignment 1: Please read and complete P-Blg 1 for the following paper: Dairy Farming in Ethiopia (Guadu and Abebaw, 2016).
    • Pre-class assignment 2: Please read and complete P-Blg 2 for the following paper: Agriculture, Food Systems, and Nutrition: Meeting the Challenge (Gillespie and van den Bold, 2017) and the optional related policy brief: How Can Agriculture and Food System Policies Improve Nutrition (Golpan.org, 2014).
    • In-class activity:  Introductions | Conceptual Framework for working multi-sectorally and at multiple levels for agriculture to improve nutrition | Case study and group work: a) What Food Means in Ethiopia Video, related to reading assignment 1) and b) Malawi video "Demystifying the Pathways of Impact of a Livestock Transfer Project (Jennie and Land O'Lakes) related to assignment 2.
  • 13: W 04/19
    • Synopsis: Based on comparative advantage, economists tell us that free trade in international markets is good because it will encourage producers (from an exporting country) who are able to produce a commodity at low cost and it provides consumers (in the importing country) with cheaper products. For example, the NAFTA agreement was based on the fact the Mexico had a comparative advantage to produce certain fruits and vegetable compared to the US and the US had a comparative advantage to produce corn. Today we will explore the implication of international trade in the context of small-scale agriculture in Mexico.
    • Pre-class assignment 1: Please read the short article Introduction to International Trade (modified from M. Upton, 2004).
    • Pre-class assignment 2:  Please read Importing Corn, exporting labor: The neoliberal corn regime, GMOs, and the Erosion of Mexican biodiversity (Fitting, 2006).
    • Optional Pre-class assignment:  Please Familiarize yourself with the following organizations: World Bank | IMF | WTO.
    • In-class activity:  Discussion of pre-class blog.
  • 14: W 04/26
    • Synopsis: For our final stretch we will look into attempts to break the chains of Hunger and Poverty. Can it be done? In this last module of the class we will focus on the "poorest of the poor." Before proposing solutions to the problem of food insecurity and hunger in rural parts of the developing world we have first to gain a deep understanding of the causes of these problems. Using case studies of smallholders or sharecroppers in northern Brazil, today's reading focuses exactly on identifying factors that mediates poverty and hunger. Next week we will look more in depth in what may work in the long-run!
    • Pre-class assignment : Please read the article Enabling food sovereignty and a prosperous future for peasants by understanding the factors that marginalize peasants and lead to poverty and hunger (Narranjo, 2012).
    • In-class activity:  Tba.
  • 15: W 05/03
    • Synopsis: For our final period we will ask the question of whether we can "really" help the poor of the world or is it a lost cause? Does AID works and if so how do we know?
    • Pre-class assignment 1: Please listen to this NPR Saturday Morning Edition Broadcast of January 21, 2017.
    • Pre-class assignment 2: Please read page 772 (overview page) and the yellow highlighted text of the full-length article: A multifaceted program causes lasting progress for the very poor: Evidence from six countries published in Science by Banerjee et al., (2015).
    • In-class activity:  Tba.
  • 04: W 02/08
    • Synopsis: After discussing broad world wide issues, we start focusing now on the situation in developing countries. The reading of Herrero and collaborators make it clear to us that livestock in these countries are more than a source of income form the sale of meat, milk or wool. The livestock play multiple roles. They are a crucial asset and safety net for the poor and especially women. Livestock and environment interactions can be both positive and negative. The question is how to "grow the industry" to maximize the benefits and minimize the negative....
    • Pre-class assignment: Please read The Roles of livestock in developing countries from Herrero et al. (2012).
    • In-class activity: Let's Visit Livestock Smallholders from around the world
  • 05: W 02/15
    • Synopsis: The demand for animal food products is rising sharply in many developing countries, resulting in a pronounced reorientation of agricultural production in general. Regional livestock markets are difficult for many smallholders to access. What will it take to foster their integration in an economic system from which they have been excluded for generations? How will they compete in the face of globalization of food market?
    • Pre-class assignment: Please read The Livestock Revolution: An opportunity for Poor Farmers? from InfoResources (2007) | Global Facts About Livestock from a 2007 FAO report titled: "Livestock: The Long Shadow". Note that since its' publication, the 18% figure on the livestock's contribution to climate change in CO2 eq. have been "challenged" mainly on the basis of which factors should be included in this estimate (such as deforestation for example).
    • In-class activity:
  • 10: W 03/29
    • Synopsis: Like many other developing countries entering into global trade, the opening of Mexicans' domestic markets to international competition has resulted in definite winners and losers. The agreement among the three north american countries: Canada, The United States, and Mexico, known as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has made it easier for processors (and consumers) of Mexico to purchase U.S. agricultural products (e.g., corn and dairy products). Mexico sees an increase in market opportunities, but some have raised concerns because they see modern (industrial) agricultural practices as causing a loss of biological genetic diversity, environmental degradation, and a rise in economic inequity and food insecurity among segments of its population.
    • Pre-class assignment: Please read  Mexico Rises | Corn Farmers Go Hungry | Science and Culture Clash
    • In-class activity:
  • 12: W 04/12
    • Synopsis: The U.S. agricultural industry relies heavily on immigrant labor. They are hired, often time regardless of legal status, to pick the produces and fruits of California to milking cows in Wisconsin. Dairy producers and Latino workers are now intertwined in an interdependent relationship; at the same time they need each other, they sometimes have a hard time "understanding" each other. Today's class focuses on immigrant workers on Wisconsin dairy farms. We'll try to understand the employers' motivation (why do farmers hire low-paid hispanic milkers?) and the employees' motivation (Why do hispanic take low-paying milker jobs on Wisconsin farms?).
    • Pre-class assignment: First, let's have a look at Wisconsin's Latino Population (for your reference, you can download the full report from the UW-Madison applied population laboratory).  Then, let's read the story of Los Braceros: Lost in the Heartland, which depicts how agriculture and in particular the dairy industry depends upon migrant workers who remain invisible to most of our state's residents. Next, please read (at least) the abstract, the quotes and the conclusions of this sociology paper addressing employer-employee relationships on Wisconsin Dairy farms: New Jobs, New Workers, and New Inequalities. Finally for your reference, see (optional) how the agricultural press has attempted to bridge the Cultural Diversity gap on dairy farms with hispanic employees.
    • In-class activity: In Hazleton, A Mixed Welcome for City's Immigrants (NPR story)
  • 13: W 04/19
    • Synopsis: There is a large disparity between Mexico's national milk consumption and production; Mexico's dairy industry cannot supply consumer demand for milk. Through NAFTA, the U.S. dairy industry has been able to take advantage of Mexican's national milk deficit and has exported products to Mexico, historically mostly in the form of non-fat dry milk, but more recently in the form of value-added products such as ice cream and cheese. For the first time in 2011, Mexico imported more than $1 billion of dairy products from the U.S. Mexico's dairy industry is characterized by three main dairy production systems: dual-purpose, familial, and specialized. Because each system has its own unique characteristics (socially, economically and geographically), Mexico lacks a national dairy policy and unifying industry structure.
    • Pre-class assignment: Please read the following document to get acquainted with the Mexican Dairy Sector: Bird's Eye view of Mexico's Dairy Sector | Mexico Dairy Sector and NAFTA | Will Mexico Become Self-Sufficient?
    • In-class activity:
  • 14: W 04/26
    • Synopsis: Today's class will take a closer look at the factors that may influence the adoption of technology among small holder dairy farmers in the state of Mexico (Outside of Mexico City). Characteristics of the farm, of the farmers and of his (all farmers were men in this study) households were important determinants of farmer's ability to "change." The reasons for which some farmers rejected (did not adopt) certain technologies may come to a surprise to some of us!
    • Pre-class assignment: Please read the article Farm, Household, and Farmer Characteristics Associated with Changes in Management and Technology Adoption Among Dairy Smallholders authored by Martinez-García et al., (2015).
    • In-class activity:  A Case Study of technology adoption by smallholder dairy producers in the highlands of central Mexico: Should I buy a Milking Machine? (Note: requires Java Script).

Keywords:material and schedule page   Doc ID:69990
Owner:Michel W.Group:DS 472 Agriculture Sustainable Development
Created:2017-01-16 12:27 CSTUpdated:2018-01-10 09:31 CST
Sites:DS 472 Agriculture Sustainable Development
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