A unit of heat that can be used to measure the amount of energy in a feed or a ration. A calorie is the amount heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 14.5 ° centigrade to 15.5 ° centigrade.
Any of a group of chemical compounds, including sugars, starches, and cellulose, containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with a ratio of hydrogen to oxygen of 2:1.
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)
A gas produced by combustion or oxidation of organic matter. Carbon dioxide is also produced in large quantities during ruminal fermentation.
The part of the metabolism in which metabolites are oxidized for the production of work and heat.
A substance present in small amounts that increases the rate of chemical or biochemical reactions without being consumed in the process.
Fibrous structure that provides rigidity to the plant. The cell wall is composed of digestible fibrous carbohydrates (cellulose; hemicellulose and pectin) and an indigestible phenolic compounds (e.g., lignin and tannin).
A polymer - long chain- of glucose units. Cellulose is the most abundant organic matter in the world. It is a major component of plant cell wall. Ruminant can use cellulose as an energy source because of fermentation by bacteria in the rumen.
A plant in the grass family (gramineae), the seeds (i.e., grain) of which are used for human and animal food (e.g., maize, rice and wheat).
Glumes, husk, or other seed coverings, together with the plant parts, separated from seeds in threshing or processing.
To crush or grind (food) in the mouth by continued action of the teeth with the help of the tongue (syn to masticate).
Involving or based on direct observation of the patient (a clinical diagnosis). A clinical disease is a disease that can be diagnosed by examination because of signs / symptoms of discomfort, anomalies of the normal state
The central core of an ear of corn.
The thick and yellowish secretion collected from the mammary gland at the first milking after calving. The colostrum is low in lactose but normally high in total solid (24%). It is rich in fat, proteins and antibodies that help the new born calf to fight infectious diseases. The secretion collected from the second to the eighth milking is referred to as "transition milk" because of it intermediate composition between colostrum and whole milk.
Feedstuffs usually rich in energy and coming from the part of the plant that accumulate nutrient reserves for an embryo (fruits, nuts, seeds and grains). The word concentrate is also used to refer to the mixture of minerals and other supplements used to feed dairy cattle.
Base of the stem where roots arise
A measure of the amount of protein in a feed determined as the amount of nitrogen multiplied by 6.25. The factor 6.25 is the average grams of protein that contains 1 gram of nitrogen. The word "crude" refers to the fact that not all nitrogen in most feed is exclusively in the form of protein. Because most feeds contain non-protein nitrogen (NPN), crude protein generally overestimates the actual protein content of a feed.