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Basic Approaches for Active Learning in the Classroom

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Active learning approaches you can use in a classroom

Active Learning
Basic Approaches for Engaging Students in the Classroom


The following are a selection of commonly-used active learning approaches that should meet the majority of instructional needs in the classroom.


Fishbowl Discussions

The Fishbowl Discussions approach is one that encourages full student participation, reflection, and depth of knowledge. Students are broken up into groups or teams. Each team takes turns being engaged in a discussion on a topic (inside the bowl) and observing others' discussions (out of the bowl). Students "in the bowl" respond to an instructor prompt. Students outside of the bowl listen and reflect on the alternative viewpoints.

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Minute Paper/Muddiest Point

The Minute Paper/Muddiest Point approaches have students write quick responses to questions to help instructors gain insight or understanding of content. Questions could include: “What was the most important thing you learned today?“; “What important question remains unanswered?”; or “What was the muddiest point in _______ ?

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Small-Group Discussions

The Small-Group Discussions approach allows students to share ideas or opinions without addressing the class. A simple small-group discussion asks students to divide into groups and democratically discuss a prompt provided by the instructor. A member is selected to report the highlights of their discussion to the class. Small-group discussion structures include group member roles (note-taker, devil's advocate, expert, spokesperson), turn-taking rules for speaking, and team or individual discussion question worksheets.

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Student-Defined Questions

The Student-Defined Questions approach has students individually reflect on a reading assignment, lecture, or presentation. Before class, students write a question based on that content and write a model answer for it. In class, student pairs exchange questions and write a response to the partner’s question. They trade, read, and compare answers.

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The Think/Pair/Share approach poses a question, asks students to reflect on the question, and has them share their ideas with others. Think has students reflect before speaking to organize their thoughts. Pair and Share asks students to compare and contrast their thoughts with others and rehearse their responses before sharing them with the whole class.

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KeywordsTeaching, classroom, active learningDoc ID104350
OwnerTimmo D.GroupInstructional Resources
Created2020-07-25 12:50:17Updated2023-12-21 09:40:32
SitesCenter for Teaching, Learning & Mentoring
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