Instructor presence effect: liking does not always lead to learning
Online education provides the opportunity to present lecture material to students in different formats or modalities, however, there is debate about which lecture formats are best. Here, we conducted four experiments with 19–68-year-old online participants to address the question of whether the visuals of the instructor in online video lectures benefit learning. In Experiments 1 (N = 168) and 2 (N = 206) participants were presented with a lecture in one of three modalities (audio, audio with text, or audio with visuals of the instructor). Participants reported their attentiveness – mind wandering (MW) – throughout the lecture and then completed a comprehension test. We found no evidence of an advantage for video lectures with visuals of the instructor in terms of a reduction in MW or an increase in comprehension. In fact, we found evidence of a comprehension cost, suggesting that the visuals of instructors in video lectures may act as a distractor. In Experiments 3 (N = 88) and 4 (N = 109) we explored learners’ subjective evaluations of lecture formats across 4 different lecture formats (audio, text, audio + text, audio+instructor, audio+text +instructor). The results revealed learners not only find online lectures with visuals of the instructor more enjoyable and interesting, but they also believe this format most facilitates their learning. Taken together, these results suggest visuals of the instructor potentially impair comprehension, but learners prefer and believe they learn most effectively with this format. We refer to this as the Instructor Presence Effect and discuss its implications for multimedia learning and instructional design.
CITATION: Wilson, Kristen, et al. “Instructor Presence Effect: Liking Does Not Always Lead to Learning.” Computers and Education. (2018) (122). pp.205-220.