Topics Map > Hybrid Instruction > Design
Backward Design Step 1: Identify Situational Factors
Whether designing a new course or redesigning an existing course, the first step is to identify and review the situational factors that affect major design components. Fink identifies these components as learning goals, feedback/assessment, and teaching/learning activities. If situational factors are not taken into account while developing these components, you run the risk of developing a course that doesn’t work for the students, doesn’t meet institutional goals, and doesn’t achieve the course outcomes. Fink identifies the following situational factors to consider.
Specific Course Content
- “What is the special situation in this course that challenges the students and [you] in the desire to make this a meaningful and important learning experience?” (Fink 77).
- “What does society at large need and expect in terms of the education of these students, in general, or with regard to this particular subject?
- Are there accreditation requirements that affect the goals of this [course]?
- What curricular goals does the institution or department have that affected this course?” (Fink 76).
- “Is this subject matter convergent (working toward a single right answer) or divergent (working toward multiple, equally valid interpretations)?
- Is this subject primarily cognitive or does it have physical elements?
- Is the field of study relatively stable, in a period of rapid change, or are competing paradigms challenging each other?” (Fink 77).
- “What prior experiences, knowledge, skills, and attitudes [do you] have in terms of…this course?
- [Have you] taught this subject before or is this the first time?
- Will [you] teach this course again in the future or is this the last time?
- [Do you] have a high level of competence in this subject or is this new material for you?
- “What is the life situation of the students at the moment: full‑time, part‑time, family, and work...?
- What life or professional goals do students have that relate to this [course]?
- What are their reasons for enrolling?
- What prior experiences, knowledge, skills, and attitudes do the students have (Fink 77).
- Backward Design Step 1: Identify Situational Factors
- Backward Design Step 2: Identify Course Outcomes
- Backward Design Step 3: Define Course Structure
- Backward Design Step 4: Identify Unit Objectives
- Backward Design Step 5: Identify Evidence of Understanding
- Backward Design Step 6: Select Learning Activities For Your Course
- Backward Design Step 7: Integrate Course Elements
- Backward Design Step 8: Debug Your Course
- Backward Design Step 9: Evaluate Your Course