|Background Knowledge Probe||Students answer a short survey to collect feedback on their prior learning, including knowledge or beliefs that may hinder or block further learning.||Identifying the most effective starting point for instruction, focusing attention on the most important materials to be studied, and providing both a preview of what is to come and a review of what they already know.|
|Empty Outlines||Students are given an empty or partially completed outline of an in-class presentation or homework assignment and a limited amount of time to fill in the blank spaces.||Assessing students’ understanding of a lecture, reading, or other activity while helping students recall and organize the main points within an appropriate knowledge structure.|
|Focused Listing||Students are given a single term, name, or concept and are directed to list several ideas that are closely related to the topic.||Determining what learners recall as the most important points related to a topic while illuminating the connections students make between topics.|
|Memory Matrix||Students fill in a two-dimensional diagram used to organize information and illustrate relationships in a way that can be quickly analyzed by the instructor.||Helping students recall important course content while assessing their skill at organizing that information into categories provided by the instructor.|
|Minute Paper ||
|Students write a response to some variation of a question like: “What was the most important thing you learned today?”; “What important questions remain unanswered?”; or “What was the muddiest point in today’s lecture?”||Offering useful feedback to the instructor on students’ comprehension of course content while at the same time encouraging students to formulate their questions about their learning.|
Angelo, Thomas A., and K. Patricia Cross. Classroom Assessment Techniques: a Handbook for College Teachers. Jossey-Bass, 1993. pp. 119-158.