D2L - Gradebook Formula Editor (UW-Madison)
The formula editor is accessed through the Edit Grade Item's Properties page, which is accessible when you create a new Formula type grade item and for the Final Grade when using the Formula grading system.
To access the formula editor, click on Manage Grades, New Item, and then Formula. Under the Grading heading, select [Edit Using the Formula Editor].
Building a formula
Build formulas using a combination of grade items, grade item options, and functions; plus numeric, comparison, and Boolean operators. The complexity of your formulas can range from simple—determining the sum of a series of grade items—to increasingly involved—being able to drop the highest or lowest grade from a series of grade items before determining their sum.
In general, the steps involved to build a formula are as follows:
- Choose the combination of function, grades items, and operators, and the relationship between them that you want to include in the formula.
- Validate your formula.
- Preview the formula.
- Insert the formula in the grade item.
Formula Building Blocks
Grade items
In the Formula Editor window opens, choose the Grade Item you which to create a formula for by using the drop-down box. After selecting a grade item, choose which grade item value will be inserted into the formula upon clicking Insert.
Value | Description |
---|---|
Points Received | The Points value for the grade item (Points gradebooks only). |
Max Points | The Maximum Points value for the grade ite (Points gradebooks only). |
Percent |
The percentage value for the grade item. This value is calculated as follows: (Item.UserGrade / Item.Points) * 100 |
Functions
Use the values in the Function drop-down list to insert functions in formula. After selecting a function, click Start to insert the start of the function into the formula.
Function | Description | Calculation |
---|---|---|
SUM{ a, b, c, … } |
The Sum function calculates the
sum of a series of values {a, b, c,
...} |
The calculation for the Sum function adds the values {a, b, c, ...} together and returns the total. The range of possible return values are the set of real numbers, as well as the null value. |
AVG{ a, b, c, … } |
The AVG function calculates the average of a series of values {a, b, c, ...} These values may be real numbers, numeric grade items, checkbox grade items, selectbox grade items, formula grade items, or functions. |
The calculation for the AVG function adds the values together, divides the total by the number of values, and returns the results. The range of possible return values are the set of real numbers, as well as the null value. |
MAX{ a, b, c, … } |
The MAX function calculates the maximum of a series of values {a, b, c, ...} These values may be real numbers, numeric grade items, checkbox grade items, selectbox grade items, formula grade items, or functions. |
The calculation for the MAX function returns the largest values of the series {a, b, c, ...} The range of possible return values are the set of real numbers, as well as the null value. |
MIN{ a, b, c, … } |
The MIN function calculates the minimum of a series of values {a, b, c, ...} These values may be real numbers, numeric grade items, checkbox grade items, selectbox grade items, formula grade items, or functions. |
The calculation for the MIN function returns the smallest value of the series {a, b, c, ...} The range of possible return values are the set of real numbers, as well as the null value. |
IF{ cond, then_val, else_val } |
The IF function operates as a Boolean statement with the following properties. All three parameters are required for the function to be valid. cond is a Boolean statement. then_val may be a Real number value, a numeric grade item, a checkbox grade item, a selectbox grade item, a formula grade item, or a function. else_val may be a Real number value, a numeric grade item, a checkbox grade item, a selectbox grade item, a formula grade item, or a function. |
The calculation for the IF function
works such that, IF cond is TRUE,
then the then_val is returned. If
cond is FALSE, then the else_val is The range of possible return values are the set of real numbers, as well as the null value. |
NOT{ cond } | The value in the NOT function operates as a Boolean statement. | The calculation for the NOT function works such that, if cond is TRUE, then a FALSE statement is returned. If cond is FALSE, then a TRUE statement is returned. |
Click Start to insert a function into the formula. Click Next Term to add additional terms, and End to finish the formula. Use the And along with the Or buttons to build boolean operators within a formula.
Completing a formula
Use the number and mathematical function buttons, if necessary, to complete the formula.
Validate
Click in order to validate the formula that you have entered into the formula area.
The syntax of the formula text that has been entered into the formula area must
conform to standard formula grammar in order to be valid.
You cannot preview or insert an invalid function.
If the formula is invalid, you will receive an error message when you try to validate it. Please see Gradebook Formula Validation Errors for more information regarding validation errors.
Preview
Clicking opens the Formula Preview pop-up window. The formula is validated before the Preview window pops-up.
Insert
Similar to the Preview button, clicking the Insert button first has the system try and validate the formula. The syntax of the formula text that has been entered into the formula area must conform to standard formula grammar in order to be inserted. Refer to the Validation Errors section, below, for a list of potential errors and their causes and solutions. If the formula is valid, the Formula Editor window closes and the formula is updated in on the page from which you accessed the Formula Editor.
Don't forget to Save the grade item from the Grade Item's Properties view.