EPD - Teaching & Learning - Theories & Principles - Adult Learning Theory

Adult learning theory, or andragogy, encourages learning that is self-driven.

Adult Learning Theory


Adult learners are motivated by practical application, and need the following principles of andragogy (developed by Malcolm Knowles) to flourish in an educational environment (Toister, 2014):

 Principle Explanation
Need to KnowAdults need to know why they are being asked to learn.
ExperienceLearning should be build upon existing knowledge.
Self-ConceptAdults need to be held responsible for their own growth and learning.
ReadinessMotivation increases when there's an immediate need to learn.
Problem OrientationLearning should be problem-oriented, not content-oriented.
Intrinsic MotivationAdults learn best when motivated from within, not from incentives or other external influences.


Courses must: