Students may view intelligence as a static quantity that they either possess or do not possess (a fixed mindset), or as a malleable quantity that can be increased with effort and learning (a growth mindset) (Dweck et al., 2014).
SummaryA mindset is an underlying belief that someone has about learning and intelligence (Dweck, 2017). Those with a growth mindset believe that they can get smarter, and effort will make them stronger. "Those who believe their abilities are malleable are more likely to embrace challenges and persist despite failure" (Dweck, 2017).
ApplicationInstructors play an important role in encouraging students to pursue a growth mindset. Feedback on assignments and assessments should provide constructive advice, instead of praise for intelligence (Dweck & Mueller, 2017). Praising for effort and process makes students more likely to pursue challenging tasks. The focus should be on "strategy-oriented" (versus "comfort-oriented") feedback (Rattan et al., 2012).
- Growth Mindset (website, Mindset Scholars Network)
- Developing a Growth Mindset (video, Carol Dweck, Stanford University)
- Mindsets and Skills That Promote Long-Term Learning (PDF, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation)
- Praise That Makes Learners More Resilient (PDF, Mindset Scholars Network)
- Mindset Assessment (quiz, Mindset Works)