DoIT Operational Framework - Section 2.0 - Glossary of Significant Terms

Section 2.0 of the Operational Framework for viewing and printing.

This portion of the Operational Framework aims to familiarize the reader with definitions of key terms used throughout all the sections of the Operational Framework. These definitions are influenced heavily by the Information Technology Infrastructure Library Glossary version 3.1.24.


An instance of non-OS software that provides functions required by a Service.


The addition, modification, or removal of anything that could have an effect on IT Services.

Change Management

The Process responsible for controlling the lifecycle of all Changes. The primary objective of Change Management is to enable beneficial Changes to be made, with minimum disruption to IT Services.

Configuration Item

Any component that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT Service. Information about each CI is stored in a Configuration Management Database. CI's are maintained throughout their lifecycle by Configuration Management, and are under the control of Change Management. (CI's typically include IT Services, hardware, software, buildings, people and formal documentation such as Process documentation and Service Level Agreements.)

Configuration Management Database

A database used to store Configuration Item records throughout their lifecycle.


The Customer of an IT Service Provider is the person or group who defines and agrees to the Service Level Targets.

Emergency Change

A change that must be introduced as soon as possible. Implementing a security patch to avoid or resolve a major incident is an example of an Emergency Change. Major changes that must occur before the required notification times are also emergency changes.


A person who uses the IT Service on a day-to-day basis. Users are distinct from Customers, as some Customers do not use the IT Service directly.


A change of state that has significance for the management of an IT service or other configuration item. The term is also used to mean an alert or notification created by any IT service, configuration item or monitoring tool. Events typically require IT operations personnel to take actions, and often lead to incidents being logged.

Event Management

The process responsible for managing events throughout their lifecycle. Event management is one of the main activities of IT operations.

Expedited Change

Expedited changes are categorized as non‐emergency changes that must be implemented in a time frame that does not allow them to go through the normal approval cycle/timeframe (e.g., customer request, change directed by management, vendors availability).  For instance, a change may require that an external vendor also be available when the change is implemented.


An incident is an unplanned interruption to an IT Service or a reduction in the performance or reliability of an IT Service. Failure of a Configuration Item that has not yet impacted an IT Service is also an Incident. Examples of incidents include:
  • Failure of one disk in a redundant array
  • Failure of the only server supporting a service

Incident Management

The process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all incidents. Incident management ensures that normal service operation is restored as quickly as possible and the business impact is minimized.

IT Service (also see Service definition below)

A Service provided to one or more Customers or End-users based on the use of Information Technology to support the Customer or End-user. An IT Service is made up from a combination of people, process(es), and technology.

Examples of IT Services supported by the UW-Madison Division of Information Technology (DoIT) include:  the campus email service, the campus calendaring service, the DoIT Help Desk Walk-in service and the campus network.


A structured set of activities designed to accomplish a specific objective. A Process takes one or more defined inputs and turns them into defined outputs. A Process may include any of the roles, responsibilities, tools, and management controls required to reliably deliver the outputs. A Process may define standards, guidelines, and activities if they are needed.


A cause of one or more incidents. The cause is not usually known at the time a problem record is created, and the problem management process is responsible for further investigation.

Problem Management

The process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all problems. Problem management proactively prevents incidents from happening and minimizes the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented.

Root Cause

The underlying or original cause of a problem.

Root Cause Analysis

An activity that identifies the root cause of a problem. Root cause analysis typically concentrates on IT infrastructure failures.

Service (also see IT Service above)

A means of delivering value to Customers by facilitating outcomes Customers want to achieve. DoIT provides many Services to a wide range of Customers.

Service Catalog

A database or structured document with information about all live IT services, including those available for deployment. The service catalogue is part of the service portfolio and contains information about two types of IT service: customer-facing services that are visible to the business; and supporting services required by the service provider to deliver customer-facing services.

Service Outage

The critical viewpoint in assessing an outage is the perspective of the user. If multiple users may regard the service as unavailable, DoIT's service management processes will regard the service as unavailable. Service Outages may be planned or unplanned.

Any event in which any of the following criteria are or will be met will constitute an IT Service Outage for a DoIT managed/monitored IT Service:

  • The IT Service is unavailable to its customers or a subset of its customers.
  • The IT Service is unable to function as designed and installed.
  • IT Service performance has degraded to a degree to render the resource unusable.
  • Multiple users' work may be lost.

Service Request

A formal request from a user for something to be provided – for example, a request for information or advice; to reset a password; or to install a workstation for a new user. Service requests are managed by the request fulfilment process, usually in conjunction with the service desk. Service requests may be linked to a request for change as part of fulfilling the request.


Time periods used to track non-IT impacts or activities on IT Services. Examples include Housing Move In/Out, Campus Events (Enrollment Periods, Breaks, Final Exam Periods, etc).

Keywordsopfram of definition index operational framework Application Change Management Configuration Item Database Emergency Change Incident IT Service Process Outage   Doc ID9918
OwnerVictor P.GroupITSM
Created2009-05-17 19:00:00Updated2022-02-01 14:49:50
SitesBOREAS, DCTeam, DoIT Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP), DoIT Help Desk, DoIT IT Service Management, DoIT Staff, Network Services, Systems & Network Control Center, Systems Engineering, Systems Engineering and Operations
Feedback  0   0