Adjustment or preparation of natural or human systems to a new or changing environment which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (Source: EPA Glossary).
Produced or brought about by living organisms.
Benefits people derive from ecosystem. Ecosystem services are typically grouped in four broad categories: provisioning, such as the production of food and water; regulating, such as the control of climate and disease; supporting, such as nutrient cycles and crop pollination; and cultural, such as spiritual and recreational benefits. (Source: Wikipedia)
The USDA Economic Research Service (ERS) defines food insecurity as a household characteristic. Food insecure households are those for which “consistent access to adequate food is limited by a lack of money and other resources at times during the year” (See more at: USDA-ERS).
The state of being without reliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious food. During the first decade of this century, more than 800 million people live every day with hunger or food insecurity as their constant companion (see also National Academy of Science definitions).
Food losses refer to the decrease in edible food mass throughout the part of the supply chain that specifically leads to edible food for human consumption. Food losses take place at production, post-harvest and processing stages in the food supply chain. Food losses occurring at the end of the food chain (retail and final consumption) are rather called “food waste”, which relates to retailers’ and consumers’ behavior.
Food security exists “when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life.” Learn about the three pillars of food security at the World Health Organization (WHO) website and the four dimensions of food insecurity at the FAO website.
Food waste is a component of food loss and occurs when an edible item goes unconsumed as a result of human action or inaction, such as food discarded by retailers as a result of appearance or plate waste by consumers.
Global Warming Potential (GWP)
An index (i.e., a relative measure) of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere over a chosen time horizon, relative to that of carbon dioxide. The GWP represents the combined effect of the differing times these gases remain in the atmosphere and their relative effectiveness in absorbing outgoing thermal infrared radiation. Although the most common time horizon is 100 years, GWP have been reported also for time horizons of 20 years and 500 years.
A fertilizer consisting of growing plants that are plowed back into the soil.
Greenhouse Gas (GHG)
Any of the atmospheric gases, both natural and anthropogenic, that contribute to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation produced by solar warming of the Earth's surface. Water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) are the primary greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Greenhouse Gas Effect
Heat trapping effect of greenhouse gases in the troposphere (lowest portion of the earth's atmosphere)
Relating to or considered in terms of pleasant (or unpleasant) sensations.
Enabling a person to discover or learn something for themselves. Techniques, activities or lessons that allow someone to discover something for himself or by finding solutions through experiments or loosely defined rules.
Other definitions (not necessarily used in this class):
Life Cycle Assessment
LCA addresses the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts (e.g. use of resources and the environmental consequences of releases) throughout a product's life cycle from raw material acquisition through production, use, end-of-life treatment, recycling and final disposal (i.e. cradle-to-grave). There are four phases in an LCA study: a) the goal and scope definition phase, b) the inventory analysis phase, c) the impact assessment phase, and d) the interpretation phase (ISO 2006).
Lack of proper nutrition, caused by not having enough to eat, not eating enough of the right things, or being unable to use the food that one does eat (see more on Wikipedia).
A human intervention to reduce the human impact on the climate system; it includes strategies to reduce greenhouse gas sources and emissions and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (Source: EPA Glossary).
The capacity of a system to buffer shock and stresses. The ability to recover from setbacks, adapt well to change, and keep going in the face of adversity.
Sustainability is a holistic concept that built on three inter-related pillars: environmental, social and economic. To be sustainable, any entrepreneurial activity must be economically viable, ecologically healthy and socially equitable. A universal definition of sustainability was given for the first time by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) in the Brundtland report published under the auspices of the United Nations in 1987.
One trillion (1x1012) grams = one million 1x106) metric tons (see Units of Mass in Metric System).
Total Mixed Ration (TMR)
Refers to the practice of loading pre-determined amounts of all feed ingredients and blending them in a mixer, followed by delivery to a group of cows, usually housed and managed in confinement. Typically a dairy nutrition consultant will make recommendations using least-cost ration formulation software to determine the amounts and type of feed to blend based on economic considerations (minimizing feed cost), while providing the lactating cows with all know nutrients required for health and high milk production performance.
Unit of Mass in Metric System
|1,000,000,000,000||(Million Metric Tons or Megatonnes)||1x1012||teragram (Tg)||trillion|
|1,000,000,000||(Thousand Metric Tons)||1x109||gigagram (Gg)||billion|
|1,000,000||(Metric Ton)||1x106||megagram (Mg)||million|