Glossary search results: 217

Abomasum

The fourth digestive chamber of the digestive system of most ruminants. The abomasum is located after the forestomachs (rumen, reticulum and omasum) and before the first segment of the small intestine (i.e., the duodenum); It is sometimes referred to as the "true" stomach because of its acid-secreting ability, which is found in most other mammalian species.


Accuracy

The degree with which a measurement matches the actual, true or target value (see also Precision).


Acidosis (rumen)

Condition characterized by a low rumen pH (below 6). The normal rumen function are impeded usually because too much concentrates were fed.


Ad Libitum

A latin word that means "to one's pleasure." In nutrition, ad libitum (abbreviated "ad Lib") refers to feeding management in which animals are fed without restriction. Cows are usually considered fed ad libitum when the refusals (orts) amount to approximately 5 to 10% of what has been offered the day before.


Allometric (equation)

Allometric equations take the general form Y = aMb, where Y is some biological variable, M is a measure of body size, and b is some scaling exponent. See West et al. (2012) for more details.


Allometry

The growth of body parts at different rates, resulting in a change of body proportions.


AMINO ACID

One of the 20 building block units of protein. Amino acids contain both an amino group (NH2) and an acid or carboxyl group (COOH).


AMMONIA (NH3)

A pungent gas. Ammonia is extensively used to manufacture fertilizers and nitrogen containing compounds. Also, ammonia is the end-product of protein degradation by ruminal bacteria.


ANABOLISM:

The part of the metabolism in which metabolites are used in the growth and repair of body tissues.


ANEMIA

A disease due to a deficiency in red blood cells or in hemoglobin that carries oxygen in the blood.


ANTIBODY

Protein released in the blood that is generated in reaction to a foreign protein (antigen) that has entered the body. Antibodies produce immunity against certain micro-organisms or their toxins.


APPETITE

Desire for food that can be quantify by measuring dry matter intake.


ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

Reproductive procedure by which semen previously collected from sires, packaged in “straws” and frozen in liquid nitrogen is thawed and manually deposited in the uterus of a cow in estrus, in the hope of conception. Artificial insemination is a technology that allows for genetic improvement based on selection and use of superior sires.(see also Timed Artificial Insemination).


AS-IS BASIS

A method of expressing the concentration of a nutrient in a feed. For example, a feed containing 12% crude protein on a dry matter basis contains 12 g of protein for each 100 g of feed "as-is" (or "fresh"). When feed ingredients are added to a mixer, they are weighted on an "as-is" of "fresh" basis. See also "Dry Matter Basis.


ASH

(see minerals)


BACTERIA

Single-cell organisms living either independently or in close association with other living organisms. Often referred to as microbes or microorganisms because of their microscopic size. Some bacteria are beneficial, but others cause infectious diseases.


Bezoar

A small stony concretion that may form in the stomachs of certain animals, especially ruminants. Bezoars are caused by a buildup of material in the gastrointestinal tract that the stomach can't digest.


BILE

A liver secretion that is necessary for proper digestion of fats.


BIOLOGICAL VALUE (of a protein)
BLOAT
BROWSE
BUFFER
BULL (CLEAN-UP)
CALORIE
CALVE (to)
CARBOHYDRATE
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)
CATABOLISM
CATALYST
CELL WALL
CELLULOSE (C6H10O5)n:
CEREAL
CHAFF
CHEW (to)
CLINICAL
COB
COLOSTRUM
CONCENTRATE
CROWN
CRUDE PROTEIN
DENSITY
DIARRHEA
DIGESTA
DIGESTIBILITY (Coefficient of)
DRY COW
DRY MATTER
DRY MATTER BASIS
DRY MATTER INTAKE
DUODENUM
EAR (of corn)
EMBRYO
ENDOSPERM
ENERGY DENSITY
ENROLLMENT PLAN
ENZYME
EPITHELIUM
EXCRETION
FALSE NEGATIVE
FALSE POSITIVE
FAT
FATTY ACID
FERMENTATION (in the rumen)
FETUS
FIBER (dietary)
FIBROUS CARBOHYDRATE
FODDER
FORAGE
FORAGE TO CONCENTRATE RATIO
FRUCTANS
FRUCTOSE (C6H12O6)
GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
GERM
GERMINATE (to)
GLUCOSE: (C6H12O6)
GLYCEROL
GOITER
GRAIN
GRAMINEAE
GRASS
HAY
HEAT PERIOD
HEIFER
HEMICELLULOSE
HEMOGLOBIN
HULL
HUNGER
HUSK
HYDROCHLORIC ACID (HCl)
HYDROLYSIS
INFLORESCENCE
INTERNATIONAL UNITS (IU)
KERNEL
KETOSIS
KILO CALORIE (KCAL)
LACTOSE
LAMINITIS
LAXATIVE
LEAF
LEGUME
LIGNIN
LIMESTONE
LIPASE
LIPID
LIPOPROTEINS
LIPOTROPIC
LIVER
LYSINE
MAINTENANCE (diet)
MAINTENANCE (state)
MAMMALS
MASTICATION
MASTITIS
MCAL
MEAL
MEAN (Statistics)
MEGACALORIE
METABOLISM
METABOLITE
METABOLIZABLE PROTEIN
METRITIS
MICROBE
MICROORGANISM
MILK FEVER
MILL (a)
MILL (to)
MINERAL
MONOGASTRIC
MORBIDITY
Mortality
MULTIPAROUS (cow)
NET ENERGY OF LACTATION (NEl)
NEUTRAL DETERGENT FIBER (NDF)
NON-FIBER CARBOHYDRATE
NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN (NPN)
NON-STRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATE
NUTRIENT
NUTRIENT REQUIREMENT
OBESE
OIL
OMASUM
ORGANIC MATTER
ORTS
OVULATION
PALATABILITY
PANCREAS
PAPILLAE (reticulo-rumen)
PAPILLAE (tongue)
PARTURITION
PEPSIN
PEPTIDE
pH
PHENOLIC (compound)
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
PLACENTA
POD
POLISH (to)
POLYGASTRIC
POPULATION (statistics)
PRECISION
PREGNANT
PRIMIPAROUS (cow)
PROTEASE
PROTEIN
PROTOZOAN
PYLORUS
RADICLE
REGURGITATION
RETICULO-RUMEN
RETICULUM
RHIZOBIUM
RHIZOME
RICKETS
ROOT
RUMEN
SCOUR
SECRETION
SEED
SENSITIVITY
SERUM
SILAGE
SILO
SINUS
SOMATIC CELLS
SPECIFICITY
SPHINCTER
SPROUT (to)
STALK
STANDARD DEVIATION (statistics)
STARCH
STEM
STILLBORN CALF
STOVER
STRAW
STRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATE
SUBCLINICAL
Sustainable Intensification
SYMBIOSIS
TANNIN
TASTE
THYROID GLAND
TIMED ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION
TOTAL MIXED RATION (TMR)
TRIGLYCERIDE
TRYPSIN
UDDER
ULTRA-VIOLET:
UNDERFEEDING
Unit of Mass in Metric System
UNSATURATED FAT
UREA [CO(NH2)2]
VEGETATIVE
Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL)
VITAMINS
VOLATILE
VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS (VFA)
VOLUNTARY WAITING PERIOD
WHEY